1. Giuntella, O., Kone, Z. L., Ruiz, I. & Vargas-Silva, C. Reason for immigration and immigrants’ health. Public Health 158, 102–109 (2018).
2. Parveen, N. Andy Burnham criticises ‘mounting chaos’ of UK’s asylum system. The Guardian (2018). Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2018/nov/07/andy-burnham-criticises-mounting-chaos-of-uk-asylum-system. (Accessed: 6th September 2019)
3. Pencheon, D. Oxford handbook of public health practice. (Oxford University Press, 2006).
4. Health Knowledge. The uses of epidemiology and other methods in defining health service needs and in policy development. (2016). Available at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/research-methods/1c-health-care-evaluation-health-care-assessment/uses-epidemiology-health-service-needs. (Accessed: 6th September 2019)
5. Humphris, R. & Bradby, H. Health Status of Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Europe. in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Global Public Health (Oxford University Press, 2017). doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780190632366.013.8
6. Home Office. Migration statistics. (2019). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migration-statistics. (Accessed: 6th September 2019)
7. Stevens, A. & Gillam, S. Needs assessment: from theory to practice. BMJ 316, 1448–52 (1998).
8. Office for National Statistics. 2011 residential-based area classifications - Office for National Statistics. Available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/methodology/geography/geographicalproducts/areaclassifications/2011areaclassifications. (Accessed: 9th September 2019)
9. Department for Education. Statistics: looked-after children. 2019 Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/statistics-looked-after-children. (Accessed: 9th September 2019)
10. UK Government. Unaccompanied asylum seeking children: national transfer scheme. (2018). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/unaccompanied-asylum-seeking-children-interim-national-transfer-scheme. (Accessed: 9th September 2019)
11. Liverpool John Moores University. Background and Health Concerns. Available at: https://www.ljmu.ac.uk/microsites/resources-for-professionals-who-support-asylum-seekers-and-refugees/background-and-health-concerns. (Accessed: 9th September 2019)
12. Public Health England & South East Migration Partnership. Migrant Health in the South East (Slide set). (2018).
13. Home Office. Living in asylum accommodation. (2019). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/living-in-asylum-accommodation. (Accessed: 10th September 2019)
14. Maslow, A. H. Motivation and personality, 3rd ed. Motivation and personality, 3rd ed. (1987).
15. Health Knowledge. Health and Social Effects of Migration. (2016). Available at: https://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/medical-sociology-policy-economics/4c-equality-equity-policy/migration. (Accessed: 10th September 2019)
16. Public Health England. Vulnerable migrants: migrant health guide. (2017). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/vulnerable-migrants-migrant-health-guide. (Accessed: 10th September 2019)
17. Grove, G. & Jarvis, J. Report on pregnant asylum seeker and refugee women: Health outcomes in the UK. (2017).
18. Phillimore, J. Delivering maternity services in an era of superdiversity: the challenges of novelty and newness. Ethn. Racial Stud. 38, 568–582 (2015).
19. Robertshaw, L., Dhesi, S. & Jones, L. L. Challenges and facilitators for health professionals providing primary healthcare for refugees and asylum seekers in high-income countries: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative research. BMJ Open 7, e015981 (2017).
20. Public Health England. Female genital mutilation (FGM): migrant health guide. (2017). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/female-genital-mutilation-fgm-migrant-health-guide. (Accessed: 12th September 2019)
21. Public Health England. Assessing new patients from overseas : migrant health guide. 2–5 (2019). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/guidance/assessing-new-patients-from-overseas-migrant-health-guide#ethnicity-and-chronic-conditions. (Accessed: 12th September 2019)
22. Clark, R. C. & Mytton, J. Estimating infectious disease in UK asylum seekers and refugees: a systematic review of prevalence studies. J. Public Health (Bangkok). 29, 420–428 (2007).
23. Eiset, A. H. & Wejse, C. Review of infectious diseases in refugees and asylum seekers—current status and going forward. Public Health Rev. 38, 22 (2017).
24. Mipatrini, D., Stefanelli, P., Severoni, S. & Rezza, G. Vaccinations in migrants and refugees: a challenge for European health systems. A systematic review of current scientific evidence. Pathog. Glob. Health 111, 59–68 (2017).
25. Bäärnhielm, S., Laban, K., Schouler-Ocak, M., Rousseau, C. & Kirmayer, L. J. Mental health for refugees, asylum seekers and displaced persons: A call for a humanitarian agenda. Transcult. Psychiatry 54, 565–574 (2017).
26. Skogberg, N. et al. Asylum seekers health and wellbeing (TERTTU) survey: study protocol for a prospective total population health examination survey on the health and service needs of newly arrived asylum seekers in Finland. BMJ Open 9, e027917 (2019).
27. Fazel, M., Wheeler, J. & Danesh, J. Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet 365, 1309–1314 (2005).
28. Mcspadden, L. A. Ethiopian refugee resettlement in the Western United States: social context and psychological well-being. Int. Migr. Rev. 21, 796–819 (1987).
29. Mental Health of Refugees and Asylum Seekers. (Oxford University Press, 2010). doi:10.1093/med/9780199557226.001.0001
30. Reynolds, K. Refugee Inequality LIS (unpublished reprt). (2019).
31. NHS Digital. Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey: Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing, England, 2014 - NHS Digital. (2014). Available at: https://digital.nhs.uk/data-and-information/publications/statistical/adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey/adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey-survey-of-mental-health-and-wellbeing-england-2014. (Accessed: 12th September 2019)
32. Belz, M., Belz, M., Özkan, I. & Graef-Calliess, I. T. Posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression among refugees: Assessment of a sample from a German refugee reception center. Transcult. Psychiatry 54, 595–610 (2017).
33. Sandahl, H., Vindbjerg, E. & Carlsson, J. Treatment of sleep disturbances in refugees suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder. Transcult. Psychiatry 54, 806–823 (2017).
34. Rohlof, H. G., Knipscheer, J. W. & Kleber, R. J. Somatization in refugees: a review. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 49, 1793–1804 (2014).
35. Babbel, S. The Connections Between Emotional Stress, Trauma and Physical Pain | Psychology Today UK. Psychology Today (2010). Available at: https://www.psychologytoday.com/gb/blog/somatic-psychology/201004/the-connections-between-emotional-stress-trauma-and-physical-pain. (Accessed: 7th October 2019)
36. Public Health England. Health matters: reducing health inequalities in mental illness. (2018). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/health-matters-reducing-health-inequalities-in-mental-illness. (Accessed: 12th September 2019)
37. Kent Public Health Observatory. Health Needs Assessment – Unaccompanied children seeking asylum. (2016).
38. Scott, R., Forde, E. & Wedderburn, C. GP trainees’ experience, knowledge and attitudes towards caring for refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants. Educ. Prim. Care 1–2 (2019). doi:10.1080/14739879.2019.1652699
39. NHS England. Guidance for Commissioners: Interpreting and Translation Services in Primary Care. (2019). Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/guidance-for-commissioners-interpreting-and-translation-services-in-primary-care/. (Accessed: 12th September 2019)
40. Glennerster, R. & Hodson, N. Access to Primary Care in a ‘Hostile Environment’. Journal of Medical Ethics Blog (2018). Available at: https://blogs.bmj.com/medical-ethics/2018/09/11/access-to-primary-care-in-a-hostile-environment/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
41. CLEAR. CLEAR Project website. Available at: https://clearproject.org.uk/about-us/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
42. British Red Cross. Get help as a refugee or asylum seeker | British Red Cross. Available at: https://www.redcross.org.uk/get-help/get-help-as-a-refugee. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
43. Friends Without Borders. FRIENDS WITHOUT BORDERS Website. Available at: http://www.friendswithoutborders.org.uk/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
44. Healthwatch Portsmouth. Cross Cultural Womens Drop-In. Available at: http://www.healthwatchportsmouth.co.uk/directory/service-listing/leisure-and-social/cross-cultural-womens-drop-in/. (Accessed: 10th October 2019)
45. City of Sanctuary. City of Sanctuary website. (2019). Available at: https://cityofsanctuary.org/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
46. Solent MIND. Peer Support - Solent Mind. Available at: https://www.solentmind.org.uk/our-services/peer-support/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
47. Portsmouth City Council. “Positive Minds” – a new type of support for mental and emotional wellbeing in Portsmouth – Health & Care Portsmouth. (2019). Available at: https://healthandcare.portsmouth.gov.uk/2019/05/15/positive-minds-a-new-type-of-support-for-mental-and-emotional-wellbeing-in-portsmouth/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
48. NHS Solent. Talking Change. Available at: https://www.talkingchange.nhs.uk/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
49. Dorset Healthcare University NHS Trust. Steps 2 Wellbeing. Available at: https://www.steps2wellbeing.co.uk/. (Accessed: 13th September 2019)
50. The News. Here is how £260,000 awarded by Public Health England will help physical and mental health of rough sleepers in Portsmouth. (2019). Available at: https://www.portsmouth.co.uk/health/here-is-how-260-000-awarded-by-public-health-england-will-help-physical-and-mental-health-of-rough-sleepers-in-portsmouth-1-9116064. (Accessed: 5th November 2019)
51. Draper, A. Fast Feet Forward: Sports training and running practice to reduce stress and increase positive cognitions in unaccompanied asylum-seeking children (unpublished). (2016).
52. Draper, A. Clinical Audit Report, UASC sleep intervention, Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Children Project. (2016).
53. Portsmouth Safeguarding Children Board. Restorative Practice. Available at: https://www.portsmouthscp.org.uk/professionals/restorative-practice-2/. (Accessed: 5th November 2019)
54. Southampton City Council. Restorative charter launched. (2017). Available at: http://www.southampton.gov.uk/news/article.aspx?id=tcm:63-396982. (Accessed: 5th November 2019)
55. Southampton Cultural Development Trust. Cultural Education Partnership. (2019). Available at: https://www.culturesouthampton.org.uk/projects/cep/. (Accessed: 9th October 2019)
56. City of Sanctuary. Schools of Sanctuary. (2019). Available at: https://schools.cityofsanctuary.org/. (Accessed: 9th October 2019)
57. Southampton City Council. Making Southampton a Child Friendly City through Restorative Practice - Level 1. Available at: https://sid.southampton.gov.uk/kb5/southampton/directory/advice.page?id=Hr_5mE0QpM8. (Accessed: 16th September 2019)
58. Justice, M. Failure to protect from the harm of immigration detention. (2019).
59. Healthwatch Portsmouth. BME Independence and Wellbeing Team. Available at: http://www.healthwatchportsmouth.co.uk/directory/service-listing/general-information-and-advice/bme-independence-and-wellbeing-team/. (Accessed: 10th October 2019)
60. Patient Info. Asylum Seekers and Refugees. (2015). Available at: https://patient.info/doctor/asylum-seekers-and-refugees. (Accessed: 16th September 2019)
61. Royal College of Psychiatrists. Working through interpreters CPD Online. (2018). Available at: http://www.psychiatrycpd.co.uk/learningmodules/workingthroughinterpreters.aspx. (Accessed: 19th September 2019)
62. Betancourt, J. Cultural Competence in Health Care: Emerging Frameworks and Practical Approaches. (2002).
63. Cultural Orientation Resource Centre. Refugee Backgrounders. Available at: http://www.culturalorientation.net/learning/backgrounders. (Accessed: 16th September 2019)
64. Public Health England. Migrant health guide: countries A to Z. (2017). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/migrant-health-guide-countries-a-to-z. (Accessed: 16th September 2019)
65. Beales, D., Benning, J., Whitten, H., MacDonald, J. & Johnson, G. Reclaim Health: A recovery strategy when doctors can’t explain your symptoms. (Independently published, 2019).
66. Tai, S. An Introduction to Using the Method of Levels (MOL) Therapy to Work with People Experiencing Psychosis. Am. J. Psychother. 70, (2016).
67. Mental Health Innovation Network. The role of diaspora organisations in developing culturally appropriate mental health care in the UK. (2015). Available at: https://www.mhinnovation.net/blog/2015/feb/26/role-diaspora-organisations-developing-culturally-appropriate-mental-health-care-uk. (Accessed: 16th September 2019)
68. Great Ormond Street Hopsital for Children NHS Foundation Trust. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) Staff Forum. Available at: https://www.gosh.nhs.uk/about-us/equality-and-diversity/black-asian-and-minority-ethnic-bame-staff-forum. (Accessed: 17th September 2019)
69. Kent and Medway NHS and Social Care Partnership Trust. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) Network. Available at: https://www.kmpt.nhs.uk/about-us/equality-and-diversity/black-and-minority-ethnic-bame-network/. (Accessed: 17th September 2019)
70. Bristol Community Health. The Haven. Available at: https://briscomhealth.org.uk/our-services/haven/. (Accessed: 17th September 2019)
71. NICE. Post-traumatic stress disorder Guidance. (2018). Available at: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng116/chapter/Recommendations. (Accessed: 17th September 2019)
72. City of Sanctuary. Mental Health Resource Pack. (2017).
73. Building Leadership for Health. Co Producing Community Integration. Available at: https://www.building-leadership-for-health.org.uk/co-producing-community-integration/. (Accessed: 17th September 2019)
74. Welsh Government. Health and wellbeing provision for refugees and asylum seekers. (2018).
75. Nosè, M. et al. Psychosocial interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers resettled in high-income countries: Systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 12, e0171030 (2017).
76. Turrini, G. et al. Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies. Int. J. Ment. Health Syst. 11, 51 (2017).
77. Nickerson, A., Bryant, R. A., Silove, D. & Steel, Z. A critical review of psychological treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 31, 399–417 (2011).
78. NHS Education for Scotland. National Trauma Training Framework. (2019).
79. Plymouth Trauma Informed Network. Envisaging Plymouth as a Trauma Informed City. (2019).
80. United Nations. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Available at: https://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/. (Accessed: 19th September 2019)
81. Robjant, K. & Fazel, M. The emerging evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy: A review. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 30, 1030–1039 (2010).
82. Schauer, M., Neuner, F. & Elbert, T. Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET). A Short-Term Intervention for Traumatic Stress Disorders (2nd ed.). Cambridge/ Göttingen: Hogrefe & Huber (2011).
83. UN Refugee Agency. Asylum in the UK. Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/uk/asylum-in-the-uk.html. (Accessed: 19th September 2019)
84. UK Parliament. Asylum accommodation: replacing COMPASS - Home Affairs Committee - House of Commons. (2018). Available at: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmhaff/1758/175807.htm. (Accessed: 6th September 2019)